Quiz Discussion


Tactical Sling


A suspect should never be handcuffed when decontaminating him/her from riot control agents?

You can easily decontaminate a suspect without him having his arms and hands free. You need to get him facing the wind and if necessary wash his eyes out with cool clean water.

The LCT50 philosophy allows you to establish a “baseline” regarding how long a suspect(s) can remain in CS

We must have a method to help protect ourselves from accusations of excessive force! The LCT50 formula will give you a baseline for your use of non-lethal chemical agents. It will help determine the amount of chemical agents to use. You will estimate the time a suspect can remain in a contaminated environment. It provides a guideline for command staff and for any potential criminal and civil litigation. It should be part of your due diligence process.

If you understand the formula and how to apply it you will be able to articulate why you used the level of agent that you did. It will help show you were reasonable in your actions and you were looking out for the safety of all involved. Using this method will not prevent you from using enough non-lethal chemical agents to dislodge the suspect. It will help you articulate why you used the amount you did. It will help you in claims and law suits for excessive force.

The long and the short of things is that it is better to be safe than live with the consequences of not knowing what levels of agent are prudent and safe for you to use.

Exposure to OC will not make your throat swell closed?

A study was done at the University of San Diego Medical Center studying whether exposure to OC would restrict a persons airways. They found that even when they sprayed OC directly into the throats of test subjects it did not inhibit the ability to get oxegen into their blood. So the answer is that OC does not constrict the airway of suspects.

Fatal injuries from the proper use of CS or OC are extremely rare, but not impossible?

Fatalites resulting from exposure to OC and/or CS are very rare. However, it has happened several times in the US and there have been claims of many deaths outside of the US. When someone dies from exposure to CS it is due to pulmonary edema, liquid in the lungs. A study by the US military has established a lethal concentration time for exposure to CS, However, no one has done the same for OC.

Which chemical agent is NOT generally used in law enforcement?

DM is a sickening agent and not generally used in Law Enforcment. The military classifies it as a riot control agent to be used when casualties are acceptable.

LCT-50 is described in:

LCT50 is generally described in minutes of exposure.

An arrest/search warrant is required before using non-lethal chemical agents to affect the arrest of a barricaded suspect?

A california case established that using tear gas inside a home was an intrustion and we needed a search warrant to use it to dislodge a suspect. That case was overturned by the 9th circuit court of appeals.

When using non-lethal chemical agents, you can count on it working 100% of the time?

How effective are non-lethal riot control agents on the population?

No agent will work 100% of the time. Many factors play into that statement. All tear gases need both the physical and the pschologial effects of the agent before it will work. Not all persons feel the effects or the physical symptoms of the agent. If you don't feel the physical effects then you will not get the psychologial effects of panic or dread and be forced to leave your position of safety. A study in California using OC showed that only 86% of suspects were effected. When Smith and Wesson had a training academy they did a study and found that only 80% of prople were effected by CS. So, it is safe to say that 86% will probably be effcetd by the agent. Of course we never know whether we will be facing the 14% that are not affcted.

California POST has safety guidelines that must be followed?

Each presenter of POST-certified courses involving the manipulative skills training shall implement a formal written safety policy.

Fit testing means:

Fit testing is a federal and state mandate requiring that your agency test your respirator to make sure it fits your face. This has to be done prior to esposure to any irritating noxious or toxic gases.

Which is not a “Method of Delivery” for law enforcement non-lethal chemical agents?

There are only four (4) reconized methods of delivery: Burn, Blast, Liquid and Fog. Each method can have several adjectives describing he method. Painting i something you do to your house.

A GasRam will allow insertion of burning gas while significantly lowering the chance of fire.

Thje GasRam is a commercial product designed to lower the possibility of starting a fire while inserting burning agemnt into a structure.

Non and less lethal force means the same thing?

The term less-lethal is generally used to define a weapon or ammunition that may cause serious injury or death even when properly deployed, but is not specifically designed to be fatal. It is generally accepted that these types of tools will cause injury resulting, at a minimum, in an emergency room visit.

The term non-lethal is generally defined as a weapon, chemical or ammunition that will not cause serious injury and/or death when deployed properly. It may cause welts or eye watering but generally won’t require an emergency room visit.

A burning chemical agent in an enclosed space will deplete oxygen?

A study done by Sergeant John Pokorny of the San Diego County Sheriff's department revealed that burning chemical agentys will not deplete oxygen inside a structure.

When can a burning CS grenade be used inside a location?

A burning agent inside a structure will generally start a fire unless it is placed in a non-combustible environment. That is in a device designed to reduce the liklihood of fire on in a location inside the house that is non-combustible. The short answer is unless you want to start a fire you should try and reduce the liklihood of combustion.

Post incident decontamination is important in returning a dwelling or business back to investigators and/or residents?

Yes it is see this article: Indoor Decontamination

A ferret munition will not penetrate most armored vehicles?

A 12 gauge or 40mm ferret round is not designed to penetrate armor and will not. They will penetrate car windshields and car sidings.

Projectiles should be primarily targeted at a suspect’s face?

Most projectiles we fire can be fatal if it strikes someone in the head. At the very least they will cause a significant injury to a suspect. Never target someone's head with a chemical agent projectile.

The best personal decontamination for CS is:

The first step in personal decontamination is the same as immediate first aid for exposure to most tear gases. Remove the person or yourself to fresh air. If the wind is blowing, face the wind. In most cases the wind and a person's normal breathing action is enough to decontaminate the individual. Brisk movement can help: flapping the arms and rubbing the hair in a breeze or standing in front of a large fan. This will disperse most of the particles from the clothing and hair. Within five to ten minutes the symptoms produced by the agent should disappear. To help remove the chemical from the lachrymator glands (most commonly called tear ducts) eyes must be forced wide open. This should be done using eye muscles and not fingers. Rubbing irritated areas, especially the eyes, push the chemicals into the pores of the skin and intensify and prolong the irritation. If the irritation persists or in a case of severe irritation, you can irrigate the eyes with large amounts of clean cool water.



Lct 50 Calculators



CMC GasRam


CMC BurnSafe